Canoe & Kayak Club
Kerrville, Texas

Classes - Safety and Swiftwater Rescues


Fall 2004:

• Rolling Classes - finished

May 2005:

• As a public service-community outreach, the Club will conduct a series of classes thru the Continuing Education Dept. of the Kerrville School District.
Designed for the beginner & intermediate paddler — to provide the knowledgedge & skills necessary for safety on fast moving water; the equipment & proceedures for dealing with swiftwater rescues.


Kayak/Canoe instruction, the proper selection of equipment and it's usage — ongoing every weekend.

Private instruction available on request

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NOAA Wind Chill Chart



How can one tell if somebody is hypothermic?

It can be difficult to tell if someone is hypothermic without actually measuring their core temperature.  Measuring a persons core temperature in the field requires a rectal thermometer and is typically not practical.  Therefore symptoms must be relied on. Hypothermia affects people in different ways and no one symptom is reliable to indicate if a person is hypothermic.

The following lists the body core temperature and its typical signs and symptoms.  Not all hypothermia victims exhibit all of these symptoms, it varies from person to person.  Note symptoms will change as the person's core temperature changes.

Core Temp.


Signs & Syptoms

99 to 97F (37 to 36C)



Normal temperature range, Shivering may begin


97 to 95F (36 to 35C)


Cold sensation, goose bumps, unable to perform complex tasks with hands, shivering can be mild to severe, skin numb


95 to 93F (35 to 34C)

Shivering intense, muscle incoordination becomes apparent, movements slow and labored, stumbling pace, mild confusion, may appear alert, unable to walk 30 ft. line properly


93 to 90F (34 to 32C)  

Violent shivering persists, difficulty speaking, sluggish thinking, amnesia starts to appear and may be retrograde, gross muscle movements sluggish, unable to use hands, stumbles frequently, difficulty speaking, signs of depression


90 to 86F (32 to 30C)

Shivering stops in chronic hypothermia, exposed skin blue or puffy, muscle coordination very poor with inability to walk, confusion, incoherent, irrational behavior, BUT MAY BE ABLE TO MAINTAIN POSTURE AND THE APPEARANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTACT.


86 to 82F (30 to 27.7C)  

Muscles severely rigid, semiconscious, stupor, loss of psychological contact, pulse and respiration slow, pupils can dilate


82 to 78F (27 to 25.5C)  

Unconsciousness, heart beat and respiration erratic, pulse and heart beat may be inapparent, muscle tendon reflexes cease


78 to 75F (25 to 24C)

Pulmonary edema, failure of cardiac and respiratory centers, probable death, DEATH MAY OCCUR BEFORE THIS LEVEL


64F (17.7C)


  Lowest recorded temperature of chronic hypothermia survivor
This table is from a book by Wm. Forgey called  Hypothermia - Death by Exposure